Objectives 

        The objective of this course is to provide detail information on the history of the development of the sculptures, paintings and knowledge of various features, traits, tradition of the Nepalese schools of art in relation to the Hindu and Buddhist Art and Architecture developed in different regions of Indian sub-continent and Nepal. The other objective of this course is to impart knowledge and information about distinct characters of traditional architecture of Nepal. The students shall be given standard and adequate knowledge on Architecture of Nepal through courses and research. Students are required to review the readings and to prepare seminar papers. 

1.  Introduction to Iconography and Art.                                                                                                                  3hrs.

This course will help the students to understand the origination of image worship in the world, as well as in Indian sub-continent and Nepal, along with outline of iconographic theme and the texts which are the guideline for making of images along with Pratima Lakshana through which the images are implemented out.

a)  Evolution of Art and origination of conceptual framing of Religious Icon / Images.

b) General introduction to Hindu and Buddhist Iconographic Terms, Gestures,                     Aashanas and Texts related to Iconography (Vishnudharmottar Purana, Roopamandana, Matshya Purana, Nispannayogabali, Sadhanamala).

c)  Literary and archaeological sources of earlier Hindu and Buddhist Iconography of               Nepal with reference to Indian sub-continent.

d)  Pratima Lakshan (Vidhana) for preparing Hindu and Buddhist Icon through prescribed Pratima Vigyan text and Puranas and its implementation on Nepalese Images. 

2.Early Sculptures of Nepal                                                                         3 hours                             

This course helps students to identify the early sculptures of Nepal. After completing this coursestudents will study the antiquity and development of image worship in the Indian sub-continent and influence of ancient art (Maurya, Sunga, and Kushan of India) of Nepal with special reference to: Matrikas, Harihara, Caturmurti, Uma Maheshwors, Virupakshya, Shivalingas found in different places of Nepal. Students are required to review the readings as suggested.

3.Lichhavi Art                                                                                                            6 hours                      

This course is designed to train students to understanding the Iconography and Art of Lichhavi period of Nepal. Under this course, students will do analytical study of Lichhavi sculptures through selection of theme, vidhana, characters reflecting its originality, application of Leph and comparing it to the contemporary art of India. Students will study the stone sculptures of ancient Nepal up to 9th century A.D.  After completing this course, students will have a familiarity with the characteristic features and theme of the ancient Nepalese sculptures of different sects. Students will be able to examine the question of foreign influence on the contemporary Nepalese Art. Students are supposed to write a seminar paper relating to this course.Students are required to review the reading suggested and also prepare a seminar paper.

              4.  Art of Medieval Period                                                                                                                                             6 hours                          

This course is designed to train students in understanding the characteristic features of the medieval art. Under this  course students will study themes related to early and late medieval stone sculptures of Kathmandu Valley focusing on the causes for its gradual changes in its character, theme and style after Lichhavi period and causes for slow decline in n on aesthetic beauty of art after 18th century Statues of Malla kings. They also make a survey of the sculptures of Eastern Tarai: Simraungadh, Balmiki Ashrama, Janakpur Dham and Western Nepal: Kankrevihara of Surkhet and Panchakoti Tirthas of Dullu comparing it to the contemporary art of medieval India.

After completing this course, students will have a familiarity with the characteristic features and themes of the early and late medieval stone sculptures of different sects of Hinduism and Buddhism. They will be able to distinguish the differences between ancient and medieval art forms and also they will be able to examine the question of foreign influence on the contemporary Nepalese Art. Students are required to review the readings as suggested and also prepare a seminar paper.

5. Study of the Painting, Terracotta art, Wood art and Bronze art of Nepal   3 hrs.

Under this course students will study the origin and development of different aspects of Painting, Terracotta art, Wood art and Bronze  art of Medieval Nepal. After the study the students will write a discussion paper.

6. Lost Art treasures of Nepal                                                                                  3 hrs.

This course is designed to  make students aware of  the lost Nepalese heritage especially the stolen art treasures. Under this course students will study the Nepalese art treasures preserved in different museums outside Nepal. Students are required to prepare a seminar paper.

       II. Architecture of Nepal                                                                                                                12 hrs.

The objective of this course is to impart knowledge and information about traditional architecture of Nepal. The students will be given standard and adequate knowledge on Architecture of Nepal through courses and research. 

         a.   Religious Architecture of Nepal

After completing this course students will have a familiarity with the characteristic features of thereligious architecture of Nepal of different periods. Under this course students will study the followings.     

                        1.Temple Architecture

                       a)  Introduction, sources of the study for history of architecture

                       b) General introduction to religious architecture of different religions: Mosque, Church, Gurudwara, etc.

                    c ) Origin, development and characteristic features of Hindu religious architecture,  different types of multiroofed temples comparative study with the temples of South East and East Asia. Shikhara style temples of Nepal with a critical study. The architectural components of temples of Nepal: doors, pillars, windows, struts, tympanums and columns along with the traditional materials and the construction techniques used in Kathmandu Valley.                                                                                                   

d) Stupa, Vihar and MathaArchitecture                                                                      6hrs.

a) Antiquity of Buddhist religious architecture.

   b) Introduction to Hindu and Buddhist learning centres:  Mathas, Viharas, Gumbas, Chhorten, Stupa: their architectural types, features and functions

         b.    Secular Architecture                                                                                           6 hours                          

After completing this course students will have a familiarity with the   characteristic features of thesecular architecture of Nepal. Under this course students will study the following:  

1. Development of Settlement: Settlement pattern of Ancient and Medieval period.

2.  Fort architecture of Nepal.

3.General introduction to the Palace Architecture of Kathmandu Valley, Gorkha, Nuwakot

4. Introduction to Traditional Houses, Public Rest Houses, Water Resources  focusing on the causes for its construction, features and function.

5)  Introduction to the Neo-classical architectures of Nepal. Western Style Architecture and Rana Palaces focusing on its theme and features.

Note:– Students are suggested to visit the heritage sites and prepare a report.

Evaluation Scheme:

Evaluation is divided into two parts. 60 % of evaluation is done as external evaluation on the basis of the final written examination conducted by the office of the Dean, FoHSS. The remaining 40 % as internal evaluation is evaluated on the basis of different criteria set by the department and the subject teacher. The different criterion includes 5 marks each for Research paper, Seminar paper, Theory/Book review, Term paper, Attendance and home assignment which makes a total of 30 marks. Remaining 10 marks is allocated for presentation. Presentation should be carried out in front of Research Committee. The average marks from all the Research Committee members is calculated.

Note: In each semester students have to prepare only one research paper, seminar paper, term paper and Theory/ Book review. The overall evaluation of these are made by all the subject teachers of all papers. While marks for Attendance and home assignment is carried out by the subject teacher separately.    

 Reference:

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Banerjee,N.R. (1980). Nepalese architecture. New Delhi: Agamkala.

 Bangdel, L.N. (1982). The early sculptures of Nepal. New Delhi: Vikash Publications.

Bangdel. L.N. (1995). Inventory of Stone Sculptures of the Kathmandu Valley. Kathmandu : Royal Nepal Academy.

Bernier, R.M. (1979). The Nepalese pagoda: origin and style. New Delhi: S.Chand and Co.   

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Bhattachary, B. (1949 A.D.). Nispannayogabali. Baroda: Oriental Institute.

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Sharma, D.R. (2012). Heritage of western Nepal: art and architecture. Kathmandu: Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies.

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